interRAI is a non-profit making organization which aims to improve the quality of care to elderly and people with disabilities by encouraging adoption of standardized assessment methods and cross-national research. Fellows of interRAI come from nations around the world. They represent a range of professional areas, such as geriatricians, nurses, gerontologists, sociologists, social workers, policy researchers, psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, pharmacists. This group of experts is committed to develop tools and undertaking cross-national studies.
RAI in Hong Kong:
A group of researchers in Hong Kong are interested in aging and mental health related studies. They have formed a study group to apply local RAI data to understand the elder care and mental health services in Hong Kong.
Currently Available Hong Kong Chinese MDS / RAI Assessment Instruments:
- Nursing Home (RAI 2.0)
- Long Term Care Facilities (interRAI LTCF)
- Home Care (RAI HC)
- Home Care (interRAI HC)
- Community Health Assessment (interRAI CHA)
- Assisted Living (RAI AL)
- Mental Health (interRAI MH)
- Intellectual Disability (interRAI ID)
More detail information about interRAI and the RAI assessment instruments can be browsed at the official webpage http://www.interrai.org
RAI assessment instruments are copyrighted and permission to use these instruments must be obtained from interRAI. For research and developmental purposes, approval must be obtained from the Fellow, Prof. Iris Chi. For ongoing use, a formal agreement must be made with interRAI President. Both can be facilitated through the coordinator in Hong Kong (Dr. Angela Leung; Tel: 2819 2630; Email: email@example.com )
Reasons for establishing copyright licenses:
- To prevent modification of the instruments without interRAI’s approval, therefore assuring that tested instruments are used and a common instrument is used throughout HKSAR and aboard.
- To underpin arrangement for data pooling to support development in HKSAR and aboard.
interRAI's goal is to encourage the adoption of its assessment systems throughout the world, and thereby to improve care of older adults. For this reason, it is interRAI policy to provide license for any of their assessment instruments to governments or caregiving organizations, without royalty.
For obtaining licenses, please browse at http://www.interrai.org/licensing.html
MDS/ RAI Related Research Studies in HK
- Consultancy Project for Pilot Scheme on Home Care and Support for Elderly Persons with Mild Impairment (2017-2020)
- A Two-year Experimental Project for the Introduction, Adoption and Implementation of the New Standardised Care Need Assessment Mechanism for Elderly Services (2017-2019)
- Project on Enhancement of the Infrastructure of Long-term Care in Hong Kong (2013-2017)
- A Case Mix Study on the Community Care Services for the Elderly (2013-2014)
- Validation Study on the interRAI Community Health Assessment Instrument for the Elderly in Hong Kong (2012)
- To Improve the Physical & Psychological Well-being of Elderly Residents in Nursing Homes by Utilization of RAI 2.0 in Care Planning (2010)
- A Study of Using RAI 2.0 in Residential Care Homes in Hong Kong (2007)
- Enhancing the Usefulness of Minimum Data Set (MDS) Assessment Package for Elderly People in Hong Kong (2006)
- Validation Study of the Resident Assessment Instrument 2.0 (RAI 2.0) for the Elderly in Residential Facilities in Hong Kong (2001)
- Consultancy Study on Gatekeeping Initiative for Elderly Services: System of Assessment for Service Matching and Prioritization of Services (2000)
- Validation Study on the Minimum Data Set for Home Care Assessment Instrument (MDS-HC) for the Elderly in Hong Kong (1998)
MDS/ RAI Related Publications in HK (partial)
- Bai, X., Leung, D.Y.P., Lai, C.K.Y., Chong, A.M.L., & Chi, I. (2017). Mediating effect of decline in social activities on urinary incontinence and negative mood: Do sex and marital differences exist? Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 17(11), 1829–1836.
- Lam K, Kwan JSK, Kwan CW, Iris Chi. (2017) Prevalence and progression of limb contractures amongst long-term care residents: data from a 5-year observational study. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017 Dec.( accepted as abstract for the 10th International Conference on Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle Wasting )
- Lam K, Kwan JSK, Wai Kwan C, Chong AML. Lai, C.K.Y., Lou, V.W.Q., Leung, A.Y.M., Liu, J.Y.W., Bai, X., & Chi, l. (2017) Factors Associated With the Trend of Physical and Chemical Restraint Use Among Long-Term Care Facility Residents in Hong Kong: Data From an 11-Year Observational Study. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017 Aug .pii: S1525-8610(17)30361-4
- Leung, DYP, Lo, SKL, Leung, AYM, Lou, VWQ, Chong, AML, Kwan, JSK, Chan, WCH, & Chi, I. (2017). Prevalence and correlates of abuse screening items among community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese older adults. Geriatric and Gerontology International, 17, 150-160. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12655
- Bai, X., Leung, D., Lai, C., Chong, A. & Chi, I. (2017). The mediating effect of participating in social activities on urinary incontinence and negative mood: Do gender and marital differences exist?” Geriatrics & Gerontology International. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12976
- Chong, M. L. A., Kwan, C. W., Lou, V. W. Q., & Chi, I. (2017). Can domestic helpers moderate distress of offspring caregivers of cognitively impaired older adults? Aging and Mental Health, 27(10): 1023-1030. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2016.1191059
- Lam, K., Kwan, J., Kwan, C.W., Chong, A.M.L., Lai, C.K.Y., Lou, V.W.Q., Leung, A.Y.M., Liu, J.Y.W., Bai, X., & Chi, I. (2017). Factors associated with the trend of physical and chemical restraint use among long-term care facility residents in Hong Kong: Data from an 11-year observational study. Journal of American Medical Directors Association, 18(12), 1043–1048.
- Leung, A. Y. M., Kwan, C. K., Leung, I. S. M. & Chi, I. (2016). Inadequate health literacy and more hospitalisation among frail older adults in Hong Kong. Asian Journal of Gerontology & Geriatrics,11,10–13.
- Leung, D., Bai, X., Leung, A., Liu, B., & Chi, I. (2015). Prevalence of medication adherence and its associated factors among community-dwelling Chinese elderly in Hong Kong. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 15(6), 789–796.
- Luo, H., Lum, T. Y., Wong, G. H., Kwan, J. S., Tang, J. Y., & Chi, I. (2015). Predicting adverse health outcomes in nursing homes: A 9-year longitudinal study and development of the FRAIL-Minimum Data Set (MDS) Quick Screening Tool. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 16(12), 1042-1047. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2015.09.006
- Luo, H., Tang, J. Y., Wong, G. H., Chen, C. C., Lum, T. Y., Chi, I., & Lou, V. W. (2015). The effect of depressive symptoms and antidepressant use on subsequent physical decline and number of hospitalizations in nursing home residents: A 9-year longitudinal study. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 16(12), 1048-1054. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2015.06.016
- Leung, D.Y.P., Leung, A. & Chi, I. (2012). A psychometric evaluation of a Negative Mood Scale in the MDS-HC using a large sample of community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese older adults. Age and Ageing, 41, 317-322.
- Leung, D.Y.P., Leung, A. & Chi, I. (2012). Breast and colorectal cancer screening and associated correlates among Chinese older women. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 13, 283-287.
- Leung, D.Y.P., Leung, A. & Chi, I. (2012). Association of cognitive function with colorectal cancer screening in older Chinese Adults. Age and Ageing, 41(2), ii37.
- Leung, D.Y.P., Leung, A. & Chi, I. (2011). Factor structure of Instrumental ADL Involvement and Capacity Scale of the Minimum Data Set for Home Care (MDS-HC) in Hong Kong. Home Health Care Services Quarterly, 30 (3), 147-159.
- Liu, B.C., Leung, D.S. & Chi, I. (2011). Social functioning, polypharmacy and depression in older Chinese primary care patients. Aging and Mental Health, 15(6), 732-741. DOI: 10.1080/13607863.2011.562174
- Lou, V., Chui, E., Leung, A., Tang, K.L., Chi, I. Leung Wong, E. & Kwan, CW. (2011). Factors affecting long term care use in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 17(3): S8-12.
- Leung A., Chi, I., Lou, V. Q. W., Chan, K. S. (2010). Psychosocial risk factors associated with falls among Chinese community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Health and Social Care in the Community, 18(3), 272-281.
- Leung, A.Y.M, Lou, V. Q. W., Chan, K. S., Yung, A., Chi, I. (2010). Care management service and falls prevention: A case-control study in a Chinese population. Journal of Aging and Health, 22 (3), 348-361.
- Chou, K. L., Chi, I. & Leung, J. C. B. &. (2008). Applying Resource Utilization Groups (RUG-III) in Hong Kong nursing homes. Canadian Journal of Aging, 27(3), 233-9
- Chi, I., Chou, K. L. , Kwan, C. W., Lam, E. K., Lam, T. P. (2006). Use of the Minimum Data Set- Home Care: a cluster randomized controlled trial among the Chinese older adults. Aging and Mental Health, 10(1), 33-9.
- Chou, K. L., Chi, I. (2005). Reciprocal relationship between pain and depression in elderly Chinese primary care patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20(10), 945-52.
- Woo, J., Chi, I., Hui, E., Chan, F., & Sham, A. (2005). Low staff level is associated with malnutrition in long-term residential care home. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59(4), 474-479.
- Chi, I. (2004). Cross-national comparison of the profiles of nursing home residents. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 4, 286-288.
- Chi, I. (2004). The application of resident assessment instrument among the Chinese residents in care facilities in Hong Kong. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 4, 280-282.
- Woo, J., Hui, E., Chan, F., Chi, I., Sham, A. (2004). Use of restraints in long-term residential care facilities in Hong Kong SAR, China: Predisposing factors and comparison with other countries. Journal of Gerontology, 59, M921.
- Standardized Care Need Assessment Mechanism Office (Elderly Services) (EK) (2003). Minimum Data Set – Home Care (MDS-HC): Overview on CAPs, HK: Social Welfare Department.
- Leung, A.C.T., Liu, C.P., Tsui, L.L., Li, S.Y., Tang, G.W.Y., Yau, D.C., Chi, I., & Chow, N.W.S (Fall 2001). The Use of Minimum Data Set: Home Care in a Case Management Project in Hong Kong. Case Management Journals, 3(1).
- Chou, K.L., Chi, I., Leung, A.C.T., Wu, Y.M. & Liu, C.P. (2001). Validation of Minimum Data Set for Nursing Home in Hong Kong Chinese Elders. Clinical Gerontologist, 23(1/2): 43-54.
- Guidelines for Using CAPs (2001). Translated Chinese Manual of RAI-Home Care (version 2.0). Washington, interRAI Corporation: 2001. (Printed by Social Welfare Department)
- Lam, Z.C.L., & Chi, I. (2001). Case Studies Using RAI-HC. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Education Study.
- Kwan, C.W., Chi, I., Lam, T.P., Lam, K.F. & Chou, K.L. (2000). Validation of Minimum Data Set for Home Care Assessment Instrument (MDS-HC) for Hong Kong Chinese Elders. Clinical Gerontologist, 21(4): 35-48.
- Translated Chinese Manual of RAI Home Care (version 2.0) (except the detail guidelines of CAPs) (2000). Washington, interRAI Corporation. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong)
Conference Papers (Selected)
- Lou, V. W. Q. (2012). A study on the profile and effectiveness of community-based long-term care services in Hong Kong (profile of service receipts) (pp. 60). Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Council of Social Service.
- Leung, A. Y. M., Chi, I., Kwan, C. W., & Lou, V. W. Q. (2012). Financial security source and trajectories of the use of emergency room services among older residents in care facilities in Hong Kong. Paper presented at the Aging and Social Security International Conference, Hangzhou, China.
- Lou, V. W. Q., Kwan, C. W., Chi, I., & Leung, A. Y. M. (2011). Trajectories of social engagement and depressive symptoms in older adults in residential care in Hong Kong. Paper presented at the GSA's 64th Annual Scientific Meeting, Boston, MA.
- Lou, V. W. Q., Lo, S. S. C., Chan, K. N. I., & Cheung, P. P. Y. (2010). Depressive symptoms in frail older adults receiving community-based long-term care: Prevalence, associated factors, and intervention. Paper presented at the 2010 Joint World Conference on Social Work & Social Development: The Agenda, June 10-14, Hong Kong.
- Lou, V. W. Q., Kwan, C. W., Chi, I., & Leung, A. Y. M. (2010). Willingness to provide care of family caregivers for community-dwelling older adults: Trends in Hong Kong 2004, 2006, 2008. Paper presented at the 2010 Joint World Conference on Social Work & Social Development: The Agenda, June 10-14, Hong Kong.
- Lou, V. W. Q., Chi, I., Kwan, C. W., & Leung, A. Y. M. (2010). Changes in the functioning health of nursing home residents with moderate to severe cognitive impairment. Paper presented at the 2010 Joint World Conference on Social Work & Social Development: The Agenda, June 10-14, Hong Kong.
- Leung, A., Chi, I., Chan, K. S., & Lou, V. W. Q. (2008). Advantage of using comprehensive assessment in community gerontological care: application of RAI-HC for screening and care plan development. Paper presented at The 2nd Hong Kong Nursing Forum. Hong Kong SAR, China.
- Chan, K. S., Leung, A., Cheng, Y. H.,& Chi, I. (2007). Medical service utilization among community care service recipients. Paper presented at The Canadian RAI Conference 2007. Ottawa, Canada.
- Lou, V. W. Q., Chan, K. S., Leung, A., & Chi, I. (2007). Mental health of the frail older adults in Hong Kong. Paper presented at The Canadian RAI Conference 2007. Ottawa, Canada.